fitness theories


The ACSM recommends one set of 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 different exercises for the major body parts which include:

Chest, upper back, abdominals, rectus spinae (lower back), quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, shoulders, arms, glutes.

However for younger persons whose bones and muscles may not be fully developed and for older individuals that

may be at increased risk for musculoskeletal injury and just beginning programs, this setting should be modified to

10 to 15 repetitions with reduced resistance focusing more on endurance before 8 to 12 repetitions are implemented.                                                                                                                                                                                                            











We've all been sucked in by reality TV makeovers. The hitch is that drastic measures are often used to produce those dramatic results, and painful surgery simply isn't necessary to offset the droop caused by gravity and aging. You'll also build more power

for everyday demands on your upper body, like pushing a shopping cart

.In fact, women who want a lift can just strength-train, which counteracts sagging by sculpting the pectoral muscles underneath the breasts. Do these chest moves two or three times a week and you bet your underwire you'll have a perkier profile in 4 weeks. HalfPush-Up

A. Place hands shoulder-width apart on bench. Balance on hands and balls of feet so body forms a straight line.

B. Bend elbows and lower body half the distance to bench (6 to 8 inches). Hold for 30 seconds, and then press back up to start. Do 3 to 5 reps.

Crisscross Press

A. Hold a 3- to 8-pound dumbbell in each hand and lie faceup on bench (or on a mat on the floor) with knees bent, feet flat on bench. With arms out at sides, bend elbows so upper arms are at shoulder level and palms are facing forward.

B. Contract chest and press weights up so that left wrist crosses over right. Lower to start. On next rep, cross right wrist over left. Continue alternating crisscrosses for 8 to 16 reps.

Chest Expander

For this chest stretch, sit tall on bench with arms extended in front of chest, fingertips touching. Squeeze shoulder blades together and reach right arm up and out as left arm goes down and out so arms form a diagonal line (pictured). Hold for 30 seconds. Return to start and switch arm positions to repeat the stretch.

Quick Tip

While you do these moves, keep your shoulders down and back, abs tight, and torso long and straight so you really feel your chest muscles working. Rounding your shoulders forward is a no-no because it can strain your neck and shoulders.


Let us look at each of the major body parts :


There are two basic parts to the chest; the pectoral major which is basically the larger portion between the armpit and the sternum and the pectoral minor

which is the smaller area just below the shoulder. Exercises for the chest  are as follows:

Flat bench press (pec major):

flat bench pressbarbell bench press

Here we have the most basic exercise to develop a strong chislled chest. As the diagram shows the individual is laying face up on a flat bench, the angle used

enables the pectoral major (which is the larger of the two) to take most of the stress enabling it to grow as a result.The tempo should be relatively slow, so

you could for example count 2 seconds up and 2 seconds down. Aim for around 6-8  repetitions for stength; 8-12 for size; and over 12 repetitions for


Flat bench press with dumbbells (pec major):


dumbbell bench press dumbell bench press

This exercise is similar to the previous one but is performed with dumbbells instead. Use the same technique keeping the dumbbells at shoulder position;

press dumbbells up bringing them close together at the top and lower to start position (touch dumbbells on chest at the bottom).

Dips (pec major and minor):

bar dip exercisedip workout exercise

These exercises target the triceps and chest areas. They work the same areas as the decline bench

Hold yourself at a parallel position on a dip bar and lower yourself slowly ; push back up to start position; try to lean foward to place more emphasis on the chest ,

try crossing your legs behing your bottom to do this.

Incline chest press ( pectoral minor)

incline bench pressincline bench press

Laying face up on an incline bench grab the bar with a grip wide enough that your arms are pependicular to the floor at the bottom of the rep; let the weight down and

press back up; inhale on the way down and exhale on the way up.

Decline bench(pec major):

decline bench press

This may seem as a difficult position for some initially; hook legs under bench as show above, use the same technique as the incline and flat bench lowering slowly

and pushing back up.


Chest Stretch

Clasp your hands behind your back with your palms facing up. Pull your hands down and press your shoulder blades together. Your chest should stick out. Hold for 10-20 seconds. You should feel the stretch in your upper arms and chest.



The back is the second largest muscle in the body after the legs, the diagram below shows the major parts of the back.

                                                    Triceps Exercises

Here are some genereal exercises for the back;


This exercise includes a lot of the back muscles(traps,lats and rear shoulders) and a bit of the legs;glutes,hamstrings the technique is to stand with legs shoulder width apart, place a barbell close to the legs( this reduces the force of gravity between you and the floor); keeping the head up and the knees bent lift the bar up and stand straight up ,exhale on the way up and inhale going down. Do 6-8 reps for strength, 8-12 for size , and over 12 for definition.

Do not let the bar touch the floor between each rep, keeping the tension on the back muscles throughout the exrecise.


Lat pulldowns:

This exercise is done seated on a lat machine; grip the bar about 8 inches outside shoulder width; from arms fully extended pull the bar down to touch the top  of your chest;try leaning back a bit as you pull

the bar down; squeeze your lats and return bar to the start position. This exercise includes a bit of biceps as well.


Lat PulldownsLat Pulldowns

Bend over rows (with two dumbbells)

This exercise should be done in the position above; keep the knees bent and back straight; pull the weights up towards your sides and not your back; repeat.

Bent-Over Dumbbell Rows

Back extension using a stability ball

Position the ball under your hips and lower torso with the knees straight or bent.  With hands behind the head or behind back, slowly roll down the ball.  Lift your chest off the ball, bringing your shoulders up until your body is in a straight line.  Make sure your body is in alignment (i.e., head, neck, shoulders and back are in a straight line), your abs are pulled in and that don't hyperextend the back



For flexibility and stretching, the ACSM recommends static stretching as the gold standard and safest form for

injury prevention and quick recovery, this involves stretching a muscle within it's normal range of motion to a

point of " Mild discomfort" and then hold that position (static hold) for  between 10 to 30 seconds, at that point

concentrate on breathing, perform what is known as "pursed lip breathing" ie inhale through nose and exhale

through mouth closed except for a small opening in the middle (pursed lips), on the exhale,relax further into the

stretch. The idea is to stretch the muscle beyond it's point of elasticity where it can return to it's original size

to it's point of plasticity where it generally assumes the position stretched to thus lengthening.




These exercises will avoid exposing your joints to harmful repetitive impacts and help to strengthen

major muscles of the body. They add up to 11 minutes. Rest one minute breathing deeply between

each exercise:

  • 20 push ups in two minutes- target triceps, back, and abs:

 Use dumbbells shoulder width on mat, holding the bars of the dumbbells places your wrist at a less stressfull position than

regular pushups. Perform pushups moving only arms and maintaining rigid position with rest of body, make sure your chest touches

the mat on the descent. Your arms lift approximately 70% of your body weight during a pushup, inhale going down and exhale

coming up.

  • 30 dumbbell curls in 2 minutes- target biceps

stand with your back straight holding dumbbells close to hip, palms facing forward,slight bend in elbows curl up until dumbbells

are at shoulder level (dumbbells should be 10 -20 pounds each), choose a weight so that the  first 15 reps are easy and the next 15

are relatively hard. General guide is for each dumbbell to be 10% of the maximum normal body weight for your height.

  • 100 bicycle kicks in 3 minutes- target leg and abdominal:

Lie face  up on the  mat. Bend your left and right knee alternately towards your torso and move your legs as if you were cycling.

Keep your feet from touching the floor as you stretch out your legs. Count only when your right leg bends, inhale for two kicks and

exhale for two kicks.

  • 40 crunches in 3 minutes - target abdominals

Lie flat on back,knees bent, feet flat on floor. Place hands in a comfortable position either in front of chest or behind head,roll

upper body forward contracting abdominal muscles, lift shoulder blades off mat and hold for 1 second, inhale when lying back down.

  • Reverse crunches are the same but instead of raising the head, the legs are raised to bring the knees close to the chest.
  • 20 squats in 1 minute- Target legs and back muscles:

Stand with legs shoulder width apart,back straight, arms down by side, bend legs until the tip of fingers touch the floor and stand back up

to start position. As a variation, hold dumbbells at side during movement, inhale on upward and exhale on downward movements


relative and absolute VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake)

Absolute and Relative Vo2 Max
Aerobic fitness is expressed in two ways: Absolute Vo2 max, and relative Vo2 max. Absolute Vo2 max is simply the amount of oxygen that the body uses during the performance of maximal effort; it is expressed in liters of oxygen per minute (liters/min). Relative Vo2 max is the absolute Vo2 max divided by body weight in kilograms and it is expressed in milliliters of oxygen per body weight per minute (ml/kg/min).

In general, absolute Vo2 max is important in activities in which body weight is not lifted such as in swimming, cycling, and the lifting of weights and other objects. Vo2 max is mainly a function of work capability of the large muscle groups of the legs. Many good swimmers do not show high Vo2 max because of the specialized upper body work involved in this activity. Relative Vo2 max is important in such activities as walking, running, climbing uphill in which body weight is lifted.


Calculate your metabolic rate

First a persons metabolic rate means the amount of energy that one expends throughout the

day when doing absolutely "NOTHING". Sounds good right? Well it is a base for establishing an idea

of how well your digestive system functions on it's own and is used to determine the correct 

exercise frequency and intensity to do, So please don't relax after calutating yours  but stay active, Deal?

To estimate your basal metabolic rate (BMR), calculate kilocalories used per hour as follows:

For Women: Use factor of 0.9 Kcal per Kg of body weight

For Men: Use factor of 1.0 Kcal per Kg of body weight

Then multiply Kcal/hr by 24 hrs to determine Kcal per day

Example: 120 pound woman:

1. Change pounds to kilograms: 120lb x 2.2kg=55kg

2. Multiply kg weight by BMR factor: 55kg x0.9 =49.5 Kcal/hr

3.Multiply Kcal/hr by 24: 49.5 kcal/hr x 24 =1188 kcal per day

*This is approximately about 1200 kcal per day.




Here are some simple exercises to assist you on your way to achieving your desired body,



Bent Over Fitness Band Deltoid Extensions
Bent Over Fitness Band Deltoid Extensions

  • Attach a fitness band at floor level.
  • Stand with your left shoulder facing the attachment.
  • Your legs should be slightly wider than shoulder width apart.
  • Bend forward until your chest is nearly parallel to the floor.
  • Place your left hand on your left thigh for balance.
  • Hold the fitness band handle in the right hand.
  • Slowly extend your right arm out to the right side of your body until it reaches shoulder height.
  • Then return your arm to the start position.
  • Repeat this motion with the left arm.
  • Breathe out when you extend your arm away from the wall.
  • Breathe in when you return the arm to the starting position.
  • Your knees should bent to take the pressure off your lower back.


    Two Arm Fitness Band Chest Fly
    Two Arm Fitness Band Chest Fly

  • Stand with your back towards the fitness band attachment.
  • Hold the handles in each hand.
  • Your arms should be out at your sides with your knuckles facing outward and a slight bend in your elbows.
  • Feet are shoulder width apart and there is a slight bend in your knees.
  • Slowly, without bending your elbows, bring both arms out toward the front of your body until your knuckles are almost touching.
  • Then return to the start position.
  • The fitness band should be at the same level as the chest.
  • Think about hugging a ball as you bring your arms together.
  • Be sure not to overextend your arms past your body as you return to the starting position.
  • Be sure to slowly return the arms to the starting position and never let the bands snap back.


    Bent Knee Push Up


    Bent Knee Push Up

  • Start with your hands and knees on the floor. Your hands should be shoulder width apart and your head, neck, hips and legs should be in a straight line.
  • Lower your upper body by bending your elbows outward.
  • Stop the motion before your face touches the floor.
  • Extend your elbows until you return to the starting position.
  • After mastering this exercise, you may wish to try the full push-up.
  • Exhale while pushing your body up.
  • Inhale when returning to the floor.
  • You may wish to place a mat or a towel under the knee area for comfort and to prevent irritation.



    Concentration Curls
    Concentration Curls

  • Sit on a bench with a dumbbell in the right hand.
  • The right elbow should lie against the inner portion of the right knee.
  • Start with the right arm extended, with the weight nearly touching your foot.
  • Your upper body should be slightly bent forward to allow this.
  • Slowly bend the elbow raising the weight until it nearly touches your chest.
  • Return the weight to the starting position.
  • This exercise is a great way to isolate the biceps muscles.
  • Breathe out when you bend your elbow.
  • Breathe in when you extend your elbow.
  • Avoid any swinging motion during the exercise

  • shoulders

    Barbell Military Press
    Barbell Military Press

  • Sit on a chair with a back support, with your feet comfortably resting on the floor.
  • Hold a barbell with your hands, palms outward, slightly wider than shoulder width apart.
  • Lift the barbell over your head until your arms are almost fully extended.
  • Then, lower the barbell in front of your head until it almost touches your upper chest/clavicle area.
  • The elbows should always be bent during this exercise.
  • Try to keep your abdominal muscles tight during the exercise to maintain posture.
  • Inhale when lowering the barbell.
  • Exhale when lifting the barbell over your head.


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